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ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories

Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis

Edited by
Khlefa A. Esaklul
Khlefa A. Esaklul
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High-Temperature Failures



A Nicrofer 3718 sinter belt used in a sinter furnace operated at 965 deg C (1770 deg F) for the curing of nickel briquettes stretched and fractured after only 6 months in service. Macrofractographic, metallographic, and chemical analyses of several broken links of the woven belt and an unused section of new wire showed that the fracture resulted from sulfur attack and overheating during service. It was recommended that the sinter belt material be changed to Nicrofer 3220-H (alloy 800H).


A tie rod, nut, and bellows from a failed 610 mm (24 in.) diam tied universal expansion joint that carried tail gases consisting of N2 + O2 with slight traces of nitrogen oxides and water were examined. The materials were SA 193-B7 (AISI 4140), SA 194–214, and Incoloy 800H, respectively. Visual examination of the bellows revealed cracks in heavily cold-worked areas (both inside and outside) and considerable corrosion. SEM analysis showed a classical intergranular failure pattern with microcracking. The threaded tie rod microstructure contained spheroidized carbide that was more pronounced at the tie rod end of the failure. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of fracture surfaces from the bellows showed the presence of chlorine and sulfur. Failure of the bellows was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking, with chlorine and sulfur being the corroding agents. The rod damage was the result of failure of the bellows, which allowed escaping hot gases to impinge on the tie rods and heat them to approximately 595 deg C (1100 deg F). It was recommended that the insulation be analyzed to determine the origin of the chlorine and sulfur and that it be replaced if necessary.

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1992. "High-Temperature Failures", Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Khlefa A. Esaklul

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