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ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories

Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis

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Khlefa A. Esaklul
Khlefa A. Esaklul
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Four tanks made from type 304L stainless steel were removed from storage. Atmospheric corrosion on the outside of the tanks and pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside were visible. Metallographic examination revealed that the internal corrosion had been caused by crevices related to weld spatter and uneven weld deposit and by service water that had not been drained after hydrostatic testing. External corrosion was attributed to improper passivation. It was recommended that the surfaces be properly passivated and that, before storage, the interiors be rinsed with demineralized water and dried.


A segment of a stainless steel clad bottom cone of an acid sulfite pulping batch digester failed from severe corrosion loss. The digester was fabricated of 19 mm (34 in.) low-carbon steel with 3.8 mm (0.15 in.) type 317L stainless steel cladding. The manufacturing method for the cladding was unknown. Visual and metallographic analyses indicated that the failure was from transgranular stress-corrosion cracking (TGSCC), which caused extensive cracking and spalling of the cladding and was localized in a segment of the bottom cone. The remainder of the digester cladding was unaffected. The TGSCC was attributed to high, locked-in residual stresses from the cladding process. It was recommended that the bottom cone replacement segment be stress relieved prior to installation.

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1992. "Tanks", Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Khlefa A. Esaklul

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