Aluminum Science and Technology
Weldability is a function of three major factors: base material quality, welding process, and design. This article focuses on base-metal weldability of aluminum alloys in terms of mechanical property degradation in both the weld region and heat-affected zone, weld porosity, and susceptibility to solidification cracking and liquation cracking. It provides an overview on welding processes, including gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding, resistance spot and seam welding, laser beam welding, and various solid-state welding processes. A review on joint design is also included, mainly in the general factors associated with service weldability (fitness). The article also provides a discussion on the selection and weldability of non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys, heat treatable aluminum alloys, aluminum-lithium alloys, and aluminum metal-matrix composites.