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Anodizing produces a uniform, continuous, highly ordered network of individual cells comprising a layer whose thickness and cell dimensions, and ultimately engineering properties, depend on the electrochemical parameters of the anodizing process. This article discusses the nucleation and growth of anodic aluminum oxide and the important characteristics of the finished porous anodic aluminum oxide. In industry, anodic oxides and the anodizing processes have been categorized into types that exhibit specific properties to suit specific applications. The article reviews the two most basic types of oxides, namely, barrier-layer anodic oxides and porous anodic oxides. It concludes with a description of postanodizing processes, such as dyeing and sealing.

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Jude Mary Runge, Anodizing, Aluminum Science and Technology, Vol 2A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Kevin Anderson, FASM, John Weritz, J. Gilbert Kaufman, FASM, ASM International, 2018, p 590–605,

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