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Chemical conversion coatings are adherent surface layers of low-solubility oxide, phosphate, chromate, and chromate-free compounds produced by the reaction of suitable reagents with the metallic surface. This article provides an overview on chromate-free coatings, along with coverage on the processes of low-solubility oxide, phosphate, and chromate conversion coating. Some applications using chemical conversion coatings on various aluminum alloys are given in a table. The article also provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of chromate conversion coatings. It concludes a discussion on organic-based coatings.

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S. Lampman, Chemical Conversion Coatings, Aluminum Science and Technology, Vol 2A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Kevin Anderson, FASM, John Weritz, J. Gilbert Kaufman, FASM, ASM International, 2018, p 616–624,

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