Skip to Main Content


This article describes the Bayer process for the purification of alumina. The process includes four major stages: digestion, clarification, precipitation, and calcination. The article discusses the aluminum electrolytic process in terms of aluminum electrolysis cell design, magnetohydrodynamic forces, and cathode lining. It reviews the electrochemical reactions and thermodynamics for aluminum electrolysis. The article also describes the cell operations and cell stability, as well as the key indicators of cell performance. It schematically illustrates the typical costs producing aluminum in an aluminum smelter. The article also discusses various environmental issues, such as fluoride recovery; perfluorocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and sulfur emissions; spent pot lining; and development of inert anodes and CO2 emissions.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register

Aluminum Production and Recycling, Aluminum Science and Technology, Vol 2A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Kevin Anderson, FASM, John Weritz, J. Gilbert Kaufman, FASM, ASM International, 2018

Download citation file:

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal