Transmission Electron Microscopy
The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for preparing single-stage, double-stage, and extraction replicas of fracture surfaces. It discusses the types of artifacts and their effects on these replicas, and provides information on shadowing of replicas. The article concludes with a comparison of the transmission electron and scanning electron fractographs with illustrations.