Welding, Brazing and Soldering
Submerged arc welding (SAW) is an arc welding process in which the arc is concealed by a blanket of granular and fusible flux. This article provides a schematic illustration of a typical setup for automatic SAW and discusses the advantages and limitations and the process applications of SAW. The article discusses flux classification relative to production method, relative to effect on alloy content of weld deposit, and relative to basicity index. It describes the procedural variations and the effect of weld current, weld voltage, electrical stickout, travel speed, and flux layer depth on weld bead characteristics. The article concludes with information on weld defects, such as lack of fusion, slag entrapment, solidification cracking, hydrogen cracking, or porosity.