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This article describes the characterization of welds as a sequence of procedures, where each procedure is concerned with a finer scale of detail. The first level of characterization involves information that may be obtained by direct visual inspection and measurement of the weld. The article discusses nondestructive evaluation of welds by encompassing techniques that are used to characterize the locations and structure of internal and surface defects, including radiography, ultrasonic testing, and liquid penetrant inspection. It reviews the macrostructural characterization of a sectioned weld, including features such as number of passes; weld bead size, shape, and homogeneity; and the orientation of beads in a multipass weld. The article provides examples that describe how welds are characterized according to the procedures.

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Craig B. Dallam, Brian K. Damkroger, Characterization of Welds, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 97–106,

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