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Cast iron can be described as an alloy of predominantly iron, carbon, and silicon. This article discusses the classification of cast irons, such as gray cast iron, white cast iron, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, and compacted graphite iron. It reviews the various special techniques, such as groove face grooving, studding, joint design modifications, and peening, for improving the strength of a weld or its fitness for service. The article discusses the need for postweld heat treatment that depends on the condition of the casting, possible distortion during subsequent machining, the desired finish of the machined surfaces, and prior heat treatment. It describes various welding process for welding cast irons, including oxyfuel welding, braze welding, shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, and gas-tungsten arc welding.

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