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Oxide - dispersion - strengthened (ODS) materials utilize extremely fine oxide dispersion for strengthening, such as nickel-base alloys or alumina. The processing techniques employed in the production of ODS alloys produce some entrapped gases, which tend to create porosity during welding that can be rectified by suitable designing considerations. This article discusses certain successful design strategies employed in joining ODS alloys in consideration with the grain structure. It further provides a brief discussion on different welding processes involved in joining ODS materials, namely, gas-tungsten arc welding, gas-metal arc welding, electron-beam and laser-beam welding, resistance welding, furnace brazing, friction welding, and explosion welding.

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David O'Donnell, 1993. "Joining of Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Materials", Welding, Brazing and Soldering, David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards

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