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Power sources are apparatuses that are used to supply current and voltages that are suitable for particular welding processes. This article describes power sources for arc welding, resistance welding, and electron-beam welding. The more-common welding processes that use constant-current and constant-voltage power sources are listed in a table. The article describes the open-circuit voltage characteristics and power source control methods. The control methods employ either pulse width modulation (PWM) or frequency modulation (FM).

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F. James Grist, William Farrell, Glen S. Lawrence, Power Sources for Welding, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 36–44,

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