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Friction welding (FRW) is a solid-state welding process that uses the compressive force of the workpieces that are rotating or moving relative to one another, producing heat and plastically displacing material from the faying surfaces to create a weld. This article reviews practice considerations for the two most common variations: inertia welding and direct-drive friction welding. Direct-drive friction welding differs from inertia welding, primarily in how the energy is delivered to the joint. The article discusses the parameter calculations for inertia welding and direct-drive friction welding. It provides information on friction welding of carbon steels, stainless steels, aluminum-base alloys, and copper-, nickel-, and cobalt-base materials.

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Tim Stotler, Procedure Development and Practice Considerations for Inertia and Direct-Drive Friction Welding, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 888–892,

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