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This article provides information on heat and mass transfer from the arc to the base metal in the gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) process. It discusses the development of welding procedures and the general operation of the process. The issues described in this article include the: total heat transferred to the base metal; partitioning of heat transfer between the arc and the molten electrode droplets; transfer modes of the droplets; role of the arc in droplet transfer; and simple model for welding procedure development based on an understanding of heat and mass transfer to the base metal.

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Herschel B. Smartt, Transfer of Heat and Mass to the Base Metal in Gas-Metal Arc Welding, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 25–29,

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