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This article discusses the metallurgical aspects of underwater welds. It describes the microstructural development, which mainly includes three types of ferrite associated with low carbon steel weld metal: grain-boundary ferrite, sideplate ferrite, and acicular ferrite. The article explains the factors that affect heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking. These include hydrogen from the weld pool, microstructures that develop in the HAZ, and stress levels that develop in the weld joint. The article describes the welding practices that can reduce residual stresses. It explains the effect of water pressure on the formation of porosity in underwater gravity welding. The article concludes with a discussion on the practical applications of underwater welding.

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S. Liu, D.L. Olson, S. Ibarra, Underwater Welding, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 1010–1015,

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