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High-velocity gas motion occurs in and around the arc during welding. This article describes the phenomena of gas flow in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The effect of trace element impurities on GTA weld penetration of selected alloys is presented in a table. The article concludes with a discussion on submerged arc welding (SAW).

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C.R. Heiple, P. Burgardt, Fluid Flow Phenomena During Welding, Welding, Brazing and Soldering, Vol 6, ASM Handbook, Edited By David LeRoy Olson, Thomas A. Siewert, Stephen Liu, Glen R. Edwards, ASM International, 1993, p 19–24,

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