This article provides an overview of finite-element-based analyses (FEA) of advanced composite structures and highlights the key aspects, such as homogenization of materials properties and post-processing of numerical results. It discusses the analysis of composite structures based on micromechanics and macromechanics. The article describes the FEA of 3-D solid elements, 2-D cylindrical shell elements, and 1-D beam elements. It contains a table that lists the commercially available finite element codes related to the analysis of fibrous composite materials. The article presents classical examples from the mechanics of composite materials to illustrate the aspects of multilayered composite structures.