In-process inspection during composite material lay-up is essential if the structural, dimensional, and environmental performance designed into a part is to be consistently achieved. This article discusses the requirements to be met by the facilities and equipment to produce high quality composites. It reviews the procedures that are allowed and prohibited in controlled-contamination areas of lay-up. The article discusses significant areas, such as material control and lay-up process, in which quality-control personnel can be effective in preventing production problems. It concludes with a discussion on automated tape laying and fiber placement, as well as numerically aided lay-up process.