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This article discusses the methods of analyzing the directional dependence of the mechanical properties of composites, especially those perpendicular to the major plane of the laminate. It provides a description of the common indirect load cases and direct out-of-plane load cases. The article concludes with a discussion on composite materials that are reinforced in the z-direction (also known as three-dimensional, or 3-D composites).

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Jonathan Goering, Out-of-Plane Analysis, Composites, Vol 21, ASM Handbook, Edited By Daniel B. Miracle, Steven L. Donaldson, ASM International, 2001, p 302–307,

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