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This article discusses the methods of analyzing the directional dependence of the mechanical properties of composites, especially those perpendicular to the major plane of the laminate. It provides a description of the common indirect load cases and direct out-of-plane load cases. The article concludes with a discussion on composite materials that are reinforced in the z-direction (also known as three-dimensional, or 3-D composites).

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Jonathan Goering, 2001. "Out-of-Plane Analysis", Composites, Daniel B. Miracle, Steven L. Donaldson

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