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Mechanical and environmental loadings cause a variety of failure modes in composites, including matrix cracking, fiber-matrix debonding, delamination between plies, and fiber breakage. This article summarizes visual analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for failure analysis of composites. The NDT methods include radiography, ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, and thermograph. The article also provides information on destructive test techniques.

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Patricia L. Stumpff, Visual Analysis, Nondestructive Testing, and Destructive Testing, Composites, Vol 21, ASM Handbook, Edited By Daniel B. Miracle, Steven L. Donaldson, ASM International, 2001, p 958–963,

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