The design of components against fatigue failure may involve several considerations of irregular loading, variable temperature, and environment. This article focuses on design considerations against fatigue related to material performance under mechanical loading at constant temperature. It reviews the traditional methods of fatigue design on smooth and notched components. The fatigue process consists of a crack initiation phase and a crack propagation phase. The article discusses high-cycle fatigue in terms of fatigue strength and tensile strength, mean stress effects, stress concentration, and multiaxial fatigue. It describes low-cycle fatigue in terms of deformation behavior and concludes with a discussion on lifetime analysis based on a strain approach.