This article introduces the various fundamental sources of residual stresses common to most manufacturing processes. It explains the effect of material removal on residual stresses and distortions in a part. The article assists in making a choice between the trial-and-error and computer-simulation approaches for the control of residual stresses. It provides a summary of the commonly used techniques of measuring residual stresses. The article describes the finite element method for predicting residual stresses caused by various manufacturing processes. It concludes with a discussion on operations involved in thermal and mechanical stress-relief methods.
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