Metals Process Simulation
Simulation of Joining Operations
The goals of modeling diffusion bonding can be regarded as twofold: to optimize the selection of the process variables for a given material and to provide an understanding of the mechanisms by which bonding is achieved. This article describes the existing models of diffusion bonding with an assumption that the surfaces to be joined are free of contaminants and oxide, that bonding occurs between similar materials, and that the materials are single-phase metals. It discusses the mechanisms considered for diffusion bonding and limitations of existing models.
Friction welding is based on the rapid introduction of heat, causing the temperature at the interface to rise sharply and leading to local softening. This article illustrates the basic principles of direct-drive rotational friction welding and inertia friction welding. Modeling the effective friction response of the materials is central to simulating the welding process. The article discusses a series of distinct frictional stages during continuous drive friction welding. Modeling of the evolution of the thermal field has been an important objective since the early days of rotational friction welding. The article describes analytical thermal models and numerical thermal models for rotational friction welding. It concludes with information on the modeling of residual stresses.