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This article describes the most commonly used test methods for determining flow stress in metal-forming processes. The methods include tension, ring, uniform compression, plane-strain compression, torsion, split-Hopkinson bar, and indentation tests. The article discusses the effect of deformation heating on flow stress. It provides metallurgical considerations at hot working temperatures and presents flow curves at conventional metalworking strain rates. The article describes the effect of microstructural scale, crystallographic texture, and equiaxed phases on flow stress at hot working temperatures. It tabulates a summary of certain values describing the flow stress-strain rate relation for steels, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, titanium alloys, and other metals at various temperatures.

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