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Simulation programs are becoming more effective tools in reducing the need for physical testing and the avoidance of costly downstream problems by solving the problems upfront in the early development stage. This article provides a brief review of the history and applied analysis of simple forming operations. It focuses on metal stamping simulation based on the finite-element methods or model (FEM) with emphasis on software tools using the three-dimensional FEM technology. The article discusses two aspects of particular importance in finite-element analysis of sheet forming and springback analysis: the type of solution algorithm/governing equation and the type of element. The article provides information on various models for material yield criteria.

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