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This article focuses on the axisymmetric 2.5-dimensional approach used in metal powder injection molding (PIM) simulations. It describes three stages of PIM simulations: filling, packing, and cooling. The article discusses the process features of numerical simulation of PIM, such as filling and packing analysis, cooling analysis, and coupled analysis between filling, packing, and cooling stages. It explains the experimental material properties and verification for filling, packing, and cooling stages in the PIM simulations. The article presents simulation results from some of the 2.5-dimensional examples to demonstrate the usefulness of the computer-aided engineering analysis and optimization capability of the PIM process.

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