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There is a need for models that predict the percentage and size of porosity formed during solidification in order to effectively predict mechanical properties. This article provides an overview of equations that govern pore formation. It reviews the four classes of models, highlighting both the benefits and drawbacks of each class. These classes include criteria functions, analytical models, continuum models, and kinetic models. The article also tabulates the criteria functions for porosity prediction.

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Peter D. Lee, Junsheng Wang, 2010. "Modeling of Porosity Formation during Solidification", Metals Process Simulation, D.U. Furrer, S.L. Semiatin

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