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This article provides information on the heat-source model, conduction heat-transfer model of parts and fixtures, and the radiation heat-transfer and convection heat-transfer models in a furnace. It describes the two types of furnaces used for heat treating: batch furnaces and continuous furnaces. The heating methods, such as direct-fired heating, radiant-tube heating, and electrical heating, are also discussed. Furnace temperature control is essential to ensure quality heat treatment. The article explains the operating procedure of the automatic temperature controllers used in most furnace operations. Heating simulations can be validated by comparison with measured results in full-scale furnaces. The article also presents several case studies to illustrate the use of the simulations.

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