Metals Process Simulation
Simulation of Phase Diagrams and Transformations
This article focuses on the industrial applications of phase diagrams. It presents examples to illustrate how a multicomponent phase diagram calculation can be readily useful for industrial applications. The article demonstrates how the integration of a phase diagram calculation with kinetic and microstructural evolution models greatly enhances the power of the CALPHAD approach in materials design and processing development. It also discusses the limitations of the CALPHAD approach.
This article presents the background to the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method, explaining how it works, and how it can be applied in industrial practice. The extension of CALPHAD methods as a core basis for the modeling of generalized material properties is explored. It informs that one of the aims of CALPHAD methods has been to calculate phase equilibria in the complex, multicomponent alloys that are used regularly by industry. The article discusses the application of CALPHAD calculations to industrial alloys. Modeling of general material properties, such as thermophysical and physical properties, temperature- and strain-rate-dependent mechanical properties, properties for use in the modeling of quench distortion, and properties for use in solidification modeling, is also reviewed. The article also describes the linking of thermodynamic, kinetic, and material property models.