Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing
This article, to develop an understanding of the underlying mechanisms governing deformation at elevated temperatures, discusses the phenomenological effects resulting from temperature-induced thermodynamic and kinetic changes. It describes the deformation behavior of engineering materials using expressions known as constitutive equations that relate the dependence of stress, temperature, and microstructure on deformation. The article reviews the characteristics of creep deformation and mechanisms of creep, such as power-law creep, low temperature creep, power-law breakdown, diffusional creep, twinning during creep deformation, and deformation mechanism maps. It discusses the creep-strengthening mechanisms for most structural engineering components. The article provides a description of the microstructural modeling of creep in engineering alloys.