Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing
Crystal-Scale Simulations Using Finite-Element Formulations
This article provides an explanation on how crystal plasticity is implemented within finite element formulations by the use of physical length scales: crystal scale and continuum scale. It provides theoretical formulations for kinematic framework for deforming crystals and polycrystals, elastic and plastic behaviors of single crystals, refinements to the single-crystal constitutive, and crystal-scale finite-element. The article also presents examples that illustrate the capabilities of the formulations at the length scales.