Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing
Fundamentals of the Modeling of Microstructure and Texture Evolution
This article presents the Schmid's law that describes the response of crystal structures to loading. It describes the Taylor model to calculate the uniaxial yield stress of an isotropic face-centered cubic aggregate in terms of critical resolved shear stress. The article discusses the stress-based approach of the Bishop and Hill procedure to directly find stress states that could simultaneously operate at least five independent slip systems. It presents ways to find isostress or lower-bound yield loci for sheets having single-crystal orientation.
Recrystallization is to a large extent responsible for their final mechanical properties. This article commences with a discussion on static recrystallization (SRX) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The DRX includes continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX). The article discusses the assumptions and simplifications for the Avrami analysis. It describes the effects of nucleation and growth rates on recrystallization kinetics and recrystallized grain size based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model for static recrystallization. The article reviews the kinetics of DRX with the aid of the Avrami relations. It considers the basic framework of the mesoscale approach for DDRX, including the three basic equations for grain size changes, strain hardening and dynamic recovery, and nucleation. The article explains the mesoscale approach for CDRX to predict microstructural evolutions occurring during hot deformation, along with an illustration of the main features of the CDRX mesoscale model.