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This article examines the deformation processes in metal-forming operations and considers the effects introduced by scale factors when microforming. It discusses the process parameters and variables affecting surface interactions, including temperature, speed, reduction, stiffness, and dynamic response of equipment. The article reviews the determination of friction coefficient using laboratory monitoring methods, indirect measurements, and the inverse method. It considers the determination of the interface heat-transfer coefficient by using the ring test and computer simulations. The article describes the behavior of oxide scale on the surface of hot metal undergoing thermomechanical processing. It concludes with information on the effects of process and material parameters on interfacial phenomena.

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2009. "Fundamentals of Process Modeling", Fundamentals of Modeling for Metals Processing, D.U. Furrer, S.L. Semiatin

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