Fundamentals of Medical Implant Materials
This article outlines some of the selection criteria for choosing an implant material for biomedical devices in orthopedic, dental, soft-tissue, and cardiovascular applications. It details the development of implants based on materials, such as metallic implants, ceramic implants, and polymeric implants. The article discusses the specific problems associated with implant manufacturing processes and the consequent compromises in properties of functionally graded implants. It describes the manufacturing of the functionally-graded hip implant by using the LENS process. It reviews the four different types of tissue responses to the biomaterial. The article discusses the testing of implant failure, such as in vitro and in vivo assessment of tissue compatibility.