Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively in a wide variety of implant applications, such as artificial heart pumps, pacemaker cases, heart valve parts, and load-bearing bone or hip joint replacements or bone splints. This article discusses the properties of titanium and its alloys and presents titanium-base biomaterials in a table. Titanium components are produced in wrought, cast, and powder metallurgy (PM) form. The article describes forging, casting, and heat treating of titanium alloys for producing titanium components. Typical mechanical properties of titanium biomedical implant alloys are listed in a tabular form. The article presents an overview of surface-modification methods for titanium and its alloys implants. It concludes with a section on biocompatibility and in vivo corrosion of titanium alloys.
Steven Lampman, Titanium and Its Alloys for Biomedical Implants, Materials for Medical Devices, Vol 23, ASM Handbook, Edited By Roger J. Narayan, ASM International, 2012, p 223–236, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
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