This article addresses the biologic aspects of implant debris both locally and systemically. It discusses the particulate debris, such as stainless steel, cobalt alloy, and titanium alloy, and soluble debris obtained due to wear from all orthopedic implants. Implant debris is known to cause local inflammation, local osteolysis, and, in some cases, local and systemic hypersensitivity. The article describes debris-induced local effects, particle-induced proinflammatory responses, and debris-induced systemic effects. It concludes with a discussion on the four systemic effects of implant debris, namely, neuoropathic effects, hypersensitivity effects, carcinogenictiy, and general toxicity.
Nadim James Hallab, Biologic Aspects of Implant Wear, Materials for Medical Devices, Vol 23, ASM Handbook, Edited By Roger J. Narayan, ASM International, 2012, p 157–168, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005666
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