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Total joint replacement in orthopedic surgery can be achieved by excision, interposition, and replacement arthroplasty. This article details the most common materials used in total replacement synovial joints: metals, ceramics, and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The principal physical properties and tribological characteristics of these materials are summarized. The article discusses pin-on-disk experiments and pin-on-plate experiments for determining friction and wear characteristics. It explains the use of various types of joint simulators, such as hip joint simulators and knee joint simulators, to evaluate the performance of engineering tribological components in machine simulators. The article concludes with a section on...

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