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Ceramics are used widely in a number of different clinical applications in the human body. This article provides a brief history of the bioceramics field and information on the classification of the different types of bioceramics. These include bioinert ceramics, bioactive ceramics, and bioresorbable ceramics. The article describes the third-generation bioceramics, classified by Hench and Polak, such as silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite and bone morphogenic protein-carrying calcium phosphate coatings. It reviews several examination methods that are used to test the biocompatibility of ceramics, namely, biosafety testing, biofunctionality testing, bioactivity testing, and bioresorbability testing.

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D.H. Barnes, A. Moavenian, A. Sharma, S.M. Best, Biocompatibility of Ceramics, Materials for Medical Devices, Vol 23, ASM Handbook, Edited By Roger J. Narayan, ASM International, 2012, p 128–134,

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