Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques are based on nonlinear interaction of ultrasonic waves with the material to be characterized and defects to be detected. This article introduces the basic principles of nonlinear material-wave interaction, the origin of intrinsic nonlinearity in intact solids, and the main mechanisms of excess nonlinearity in damaged metals. It describes the measurement methods for nonlinear ultrasonic materials characterization and flaw-detection. The article schematically illustrates the instrumentation used for measurements of longitudinal wave and Rayleigh surface acoustic waves. It concludes with information on the applications of nonlinear ultrasonics.