Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article discusses the principles of each of these inspection methods. It describes the applications and the basic data formats for single-element transducer-based systems, including A-scans, B-scans, and C-scans. The article provides information on electronic equipment used for ultrasonic inspection. It also describes how specific material conditions produce and modify A-scan indications. The article provides information on the controls and their functions for the display unit of the electronic equipment. It describes the techniques used for the identification and characterization of flaws, namely, surface (Rayleigh) wave and ultrasonic polar scan techniques.