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Eddy-current inspection is based on the principles of electromagnetic induction and is used to identify or differentiate among a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic metals and metal parts. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of eddy-current inspection, as well as the development of the eddy-current inspection process. It reviews the principal operating variables encountered in eddy-current inspection: coil impedance, electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, lift-off and fill factors, edge effect, and skin effect. The article illustrates some of the principal impedance concepts that are fundamental to understanding of and effective...

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