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This article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, applications, and selection criteria of various technologies and transduction modalities that can generate and detect ultrasonic waves. These include piezoelectric transducers, electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), laser ultrasound phased array transducers, magnetostriction transducers, and couplants. The article discusses four basic types of search units with piezoelectric transducers. These include the straight-beam contact type, the angle-beam contact type, the dual-element contact type, and the immersion type. The article concludes with information on immersion or contact type focused search units.

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Leonard J. Bond, Ultrasonic Transduction (Transducer Elements), Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials, Vol 17, ASM Handbook, Edited By Aquil Ahmad, Leonard J. Bond, ASM International, 2018, p 184–196,

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