Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials
Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety principles associated with radiography. There are two main aspects of safety: monitoring radiation dosage and protecting personnel. The article summarizes the major factors involved in both and discusses the operating characteristics of X-ray tubes. It describes the various methods of controlling scattered radiation: use of lead screens; protection against backscatter and scatter from external objects; and use of masks, diaphragms, collimators, and filtration. The article concludes with a discussion on image conversion media, including recording media, lead screens, lead oxide screens, and fluorescent intensifying screens.