Mechanical Properties of Gray Irons
A wide range of mechanical properties can be obtained with a given composition of cast iron, depending on the microstructural constituents that form during solidification and subsequent solid-state processing. This article discusses the mechanical properties of gray iron and provides some general property comparisons with malleable, ductile (nodular), and compacted graphite irons. The mechanical properties of gray iron are determined by the combined effects of its chemical composition, processing technique in the foundry, and cooling rates during solidification. The article provides information on the classification of gray irons based on ASTM International specification A48/A48M. It discusses the loading effect, surface effect, notch sensitivity, and environmental effect on the mechanical properties of gray iron. The chemical composition ranges of some of the more widely used heat-resistant gray irons suitable for elevated-temperature service are presented in a table.