Ductile cast irons are heat treated primarily to create matrix microstructures and associated mechanical properties not readily obtained in the as-cast condition. This article discusses the most important heat treatments of ductile irons and their purposes. International standards of ductile iron provided by ASTM International, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and SAE International are presented in a table. The article explains basic structural differences between the ferritic, pearlitic, martensitic, and ausferritic classes. It presents recommended practices for annealing ductile iron castings for different alloy contents and for castings with and without eutectic carbides. The article discusses the induction surface hardening and remelt hardening of ductile iron. It concludes with information on the effect of heat treatment on fatigue strength of ductile iron.