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Aggregate molding, or sand casting, is the gravity pouring of liquid metal into a mold that is made of a mixture molded against a permanent pattern. This article summarizes the most important materials in the process of sand casting of cast iron, including different types of molding aggregates, clays, water, and additives in green sand, chemically bonded organic resins, and inorganic binders in self-setting, thermosetting, and gas-triggered systems. It discusses three main types of reclamation systems: wet, dry, and thermal. The article concludes with a description of both nonpermanent and permanent mold processes.

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John Campbell, József Tamás Svidró, Judit Svidró, Molding and Casting Processes, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 189–206,

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