Gray cast iron is one of the most tolerant of metals when used with poorly designed filling systems. Good filling systems are necessary for the production of sound and acceptable ductile iron castings. This article presents an outline description of well-designed filling systems for all varieties of cast iron and all varieties of molds. It discusses the general conditions for the filling system layout, including the downsprue, sprue/runner junction, and runner. Both gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit a growth of graphite in direct contact with the liquid metal. The article concludes with a discussion on feeding of ductile iron.
John Campbell, Filling and Feeding Systems for Cast Irons, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 182–188, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006303
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