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This article describes the modification and inoculation of cast iron, and schematically illustrates the major effects of inoculation in gray cast irons. Inoculation could be considered as a common liquid-state treatment for all commercial cast irons (gray/compacted/ductile irons), while modification is essential to produce compacted graphite iron (intermediate level) and ductile iron. The article discusses the most important aspects of a gray cast iron inoculation treatment and the factors influencing its inoculation efficiency. It describes the modification and inoculation of ductile cast iron and compacted graphite cast iron.

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Iulian Riposan, Torbjorn Skaland, Modification and Inoculation of Cast Iron, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 160–176,

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