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The solidification of hypoeutectic cast iron starts with the nucleation and growth of austenite dendrites, while that of hypereutectic iron starts with the crystallization of primary graphite in the stable system or cementite in the metastable system. This article begins with a discussion on the nucleation and growth of austenite dendrites. It describes the nucleation of lamellar graphite, spheroidal graphite, and austenite-iron carbide eutectic. The article reviews three main graphite morphologies crystallizing from the iron melts during solidification: lamellar (LG), compacted or vermicular (CG), and spheroidal. It discusses the metastable solidification of austenite-iron carbide eutectic and concludes with information on gray-to-white structural transition of cast iron.

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Doru M. Stefanescu, Microstructure Evolution during the Liquid/Solid Transformation in Cast Iron, Cast Iron Science and Technology, Vol 1A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Doru M. Stefanescu, ASM International, 2017, p 59–80,

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