The mechanical properties of ductile cast irons are determined largely by the microstructure of the steel matrix in combination with the shape, size, and distribution of the graphite nodules. This article describes the designation of ductile cast irons according to the ASTM International designation system and reviews standard-grade ductile cast irons. An overview of the most commonly used standards related to designation and specification of ductile cast iron is presented in a table. This article discusses the use of low-alloy ductile cast irons at elevated temperatures and the chemical compositions and some mechanical properties of austenitic ductile cast irons. The article concludes with a discussion on heat treatment of austempered ductile iron.
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